rich in proteins, lipids and sugars
Organic matter consists of organic compounds that come from the remains of organisms that were once alive, such as plants and animals and their waste products in the natural environment. The basic structures are formed of cellulose, tannin, cutin, and lignin, along with several other proteins, lipids, and sugars. It is very important in the movement of nutrients in the environment and plays a fundamental role in water retention on the surface of the planet.
Organic matter contributes to plant growth through its effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, fulfilling the following functions:
- Nutritional, as it serves as a source of N, P for plant growth
- Biological, as it profoundly affects the activities of microflora and microfauna organisms
- Physical and physical-chemical, by promoting a good soil structure, improving tillage, aeration and retention of moisture and increasing buffering and exchange capacity of soils.
Organic matter has both direct and indirect effects on the availability of nutrients for plant growth. In addition to serving as a source of N, P, S through mineralization by soil microorganisms, organic matter influences the provision of nutrients from other sources. Organic substances in the soil can have a direct physiological effect on plants growth .